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Rudolph grew up in Elkton KY. In 1940 Rudolph earned his Bachelors degree in Architecture at Auburn University, then known as Alabama Polytechnic Institute. After working briefly with E. B. Van Koeren in Birmingham AL and Ralph Twitchell in Sarasota FL, he entered the Harvard Graduate School of Design in 1941 to study under Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius. 

In 1942, Rudolph began Naval officer training at MIT and Princeton University. Afterwards, he served in the Navy for three years before returning to Harvard to earn his Masters degree in 1947. In 1948, Rudolph won Harvard Graduate School of Design’s annual traveling fellowship. He traveled throughout Europe until the summer of 1949 when Ralph Twitchell offered him full partnership. Rudolph moved to Sarasota FL for that job until 1951 when he founded his own firm.

In Florida, Rudolph became a leader of the what became known as the Sarasota school (although there was never a formal school) of architecture associated with architects Ralph Twitchell, Ralph Zimmerman, William Zimmerman, Philip Hiss, Jack West, Gene Leedy, Mark Hampton, Phil Hall, Roland Sellew, Tim Seibert, Victor Lundy, Bill Rupp, John and Ken Warriner, Tolyn Twitchell, Bert Brosmith, Frank Folsom Smith, Boyd Blackner, Louis Schneider, James Holiday, Joseph Farrell, and Carl Abbott. The Sarasota style emphasized architecture in harmony with its water surroundings. Elements were clean, open floor plans; terrazzo floors; an abundance of natural light from extensive glazing; and flat roofs with wide overhangs to shade the glazing. Ralph Twitchell's nephew, Jack Twitchell, built many of Rudolph’s houses.

Rudolph moved to the Yale School of Architecture to become Chair of the Department of Architecture in 1958, shortly after designing the Yale Art and Architecture Building, a structure considered his masterpiece, below. He moved to New York in 1966 where he remained for the rest of his life.

Rudolph inspired a generation of architects. The public, however, did not warm to his large brutalist designs, often finding the intense use of concrete and steel to be ugly and oppressive. 

This page is the official Rudolph residential index for the Paul Rudolph Heritage Foundation, founded in 2015 by Ernst Wagner. That is different from the Paul Rudolph Foundation, also founded by Ernst Wagner in 2002 but as of 2016 led by former Paul Rudolph Foundation board member, architect George Balle.

In 1997, Rudolph passed away in New York City. According to his obituary in The New York Times, “With the exception of Louis I. Kahn, no American architect of his generation enjoyed higher esteem in the 1960’s. But after 1970, his reputation plummeted. Many of his buildings are being torn down, or are in danger of being torn down. Mr. Rudolph leaves behind a perplexing legacy that will take many years to untangle."

At the time of his death he was working on plans for a new town of 250,000 people in Indonesia and several projects in Singapore. In North Carolina, he designed the 1972 Burroughs Wellcome Headquarters shown below along with additions in 1976, 1978, and 1982. The entire site was sold to United Therapeutics in 2012. 

United Therapeutics saved much of the original building above as part of a new lab campus, as yet unbuilt, the main building of which is shown below. Video.

Rudolph and Renewal:  documentary about urban renewal in New Haven—with a focus on Rudolph

Concretopia: documentary about the Rudolph's Dartmouth campus

The DNA of Architecture: 1995 lecture at SCI-ARC. Backup site.

A 1983 movie about Rudolph, Spaces, was made by Bob Eisenhardt.

Additional Resources: Paul Rudolph Foundation, Paul Rudolph Heritage Foundation, Facebook Fan / News Page, Rudolph Archive at UMass Dartmouth, Rudolph Interview Transcript

1940 - The T. P. Atkinson Residence, 628 East Samford, Auburn AL. Commissioned 1939. Rudolph was only 22 when he designed and supervised construction of this house for an Auburn University professor. Although not Modernist, the one-story brick building incorporated new technical innovations such as central heating, corner windows and a copper standing seam roof. Sold to Steve Etheridge. Sold in 2013 to Kathy and Bernie Simmons.

1941 - The Ralph Twitchell Residence, 101 Big Pass Lane, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell.  Featured in Architectural Forum, September 1947. As of 1969, the owners were Garrison and Marjorie Creighton. Sold in 2005 to architect Joe King. Damaged by fire, the house was dismantled and put into storage in 2007; the land was unbuilt as of 2013, bottom photo. Top photo by Sarasota County History Center. Next photo by Joseph Steinmetz. Remaining photos by Chris Mottalini.

1946 - The Alexander S. (Al) and Leona B. Harkavy Residence, 4018 Roberts Point Road, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Featured in Architectural Forum, September 1947. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. B/W photos by Joseph Steinmetz from Architectural Forum. Harkavy died in 1956; his executor was Martin R. Harkavy.  There was at least one addition. Sold in 1986 to John C. Greer. Was a rental for years.  For sale in 2015 as a teardown.

1946 - The Marion Miller Boat House, Casey Key, Sarasota FL. Unbuilt.  Designed with Ralph Twitchell.

1946 - The Muniz House, location unknown.  Likely unbuilt.  Designed with Ralph Twitchell.

1946 - aka the Weekend House, Rudolph's graduate school project at Harvard.  Unbuilt.  The basic design was later used for Roberta Finney, below, also unbuilt.

1947 - The Burt J. Denman Residence, 4822 Ocean Boulevard, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1946. Appeared in Progressive Architecture August 1950. Photos courtesy Library of Congress. Destroyed and replaced with condos, bottom photo.

 1947 - The Roberta Healy Finney Guest House, aka Finney Guest Cottage, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Unbuilt.

1947 - The Goar Residence, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Unbuilt.

1947 - The Shute Residence, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Unbuilt.

Main House, above



Guest House, above

1948 - The Marion "Monks" Miller Residence, 2209 Casey Key Road, Sarasota FL. Commissioned1947. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Won an 1949 Progressive Architecture Award. Rudolph and Twitchell also designed a 1949 guest house. Miller married Mario Lucci, who lived there until 1971. Sold to a person who expanded it.

Author Stephen King lost the bidding in 1999 to buyers Walter and Marilyn Kreiseder, who sought someone to move the main house prior to new construction. The main house was destroyed, as a new 25,000 sf home went up in 2003, bottom photo. The guest house fate is unknown.

1948 - The Maynard E. (Russ) and Phyllis Boggs Russell Residence, 945 Whitakers Lane (formerly Palmetto Lane), Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1947. Designed with Ralph Twitchell.  Featured in Architectural Record January 1950, House and Garden December 1949.  The Russells moved out around 1968 and their son Jon moved in for about four years, according to Jon's sister Barbara Sue Russell Michel.  It's unclear what happened to the house after that.  Destroyed in the 1990's with a new house built in 1994. Photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. 

1948 - The Joseph Janney Steinmetz Photography Studio, 1614 Laurel Street, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1947. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Was significantly altered. Destroyed in the 2000's. Photos by Sarasota County Historical Resources.  Not a house.

1948 - The Lamolithic/J. E. Lambie Development,5528, 5540, 5544, 5546 Avenida Del Mare, Sarasota FL. Made of concrete. These photos are from 5540. Designed with Ralph Twitchell.

1948 - The Roberta Healy Finney House, aka the Revere Quality House, 100 Ogden Lane, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell, who moved in with the client. 

The house was a cooperative project between the two architects, Architectural Forum, Revere Copper and Brass, and the builders Lamolithic Industries. There were originally going to be eight houses like this around the country.  When this house opened, over 16,000 people visited the first year.  It was featured in House and Garden August 1949, Architectural Forum October 1948, Architectural Review November 1948.

Roberta Finney died in 1966. Twitchell lived there until his death in 1978 and the house stayed with the Twitchell family. Sold in 2003 to Doug Olson. In 2005, Olson sold 50% to developer Howard Rooks and they commissioned a 2008 restoration and large addition by architect Guy Peterson/OFA and built by Pat Ball.  The Revere site became the pool house. Added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2008. Sold to Robert and Mich Lomnitz. Sold in 2017 to David S. Zaccardelli Living Trust. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.  Bottom two photos by Jan-Richard Kikkert.

1948 - The Albert T. and Lois Siegrist Residence, 520 Valencia Road, Venice FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Chosen as a house of "quality and significance" by the NY Museum of Modern Art for an exhibition in 1952. Featured in Progressive Architecture June 1949, Arts+Architecture April 1953. Sold around 1959 to Robert Leonard Corcoran and Vivian Corcoran. Sold and renovated into an Italianate villa in 1979, bottom photo (from 2010).

1949 - The Edward Deeds Residence, 5242 Avenida Del Mare, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1948. Featured in Architectural Forum, April 1950. Renovations in 1969. Sold around 1983 to Marvin and Teresa Emery, still owners as of 2018. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto; bottom two photos by Jan-Richard Kikkert.


1949 - The Arthur C. Cheatham Pool and Pool House Addition, 120 Kenwith Road, Lakeland FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Original house was built in 1935.  Featured in Home and Garden, 1951; Progressive Architecture February 1952. Sold in 1995 to James Bush. Still surviving as of 2018 but has been altered.  Color photo and rendering by Tim Hills.

1950 - The W. R. Healy Guest House, aka the Cocoon House, 3575 Bayou Louise Lane, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell.  The Healys were the parents of Roberta Healy Finney.  Commissioned 1948. Featured in Architectural Forum June 1951, House and Home February 1952, Arts+Architecture June 1959. The roof structure is an original technological assembly: the steel straps are fastened to flexible insulation boards, and the roofing material, Cocoon, is sprayed on. This flexible vinyl compound was developed by the U.S. military to encase ship components from the weather. About 1955, the house needed to be reroofed and a young Crutcher Ross was on that roofing crew. Sold to Barry J. (Jim) LaClair. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.  Rented to the Sarasota Architecture Foundation for a year starting in April 2018.

1950 - The Burnette Residence, 1201 Hillview Drive, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Bottom two color photos by Harold Bubil. Sold around 1963 to Michael and Cynthia Lieberbaum. Remodeled in the mid 1990's by Joe Angeleri. Sold in 2016 to Robert L. Taylor. Destroyed in 2018.

1950 - The Per Scheutz Apartments, Sarasota FL.  Likely unbuilt.  Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

1951 - The Allen and Barbara Bennett Residence, 3901 Riverview Boulevard, Bradenton FL. Commissioned 1949. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Sold to a new owner. Sold in 2001 to architect Joseph King who wrote extensively on Rudolph. Top photo by Bobby Bennett. Sold in 2011 to Robin Zimmerman.



1951 - The W. W. Kerr Residence, 211 Oak Street, Melbourne Beach FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. 2900 sf. Sold in 1988 to Joseph and Hope Petrone. Renovated and expanded by architect Larry Maxwell of Spacecoast Architects in 2007. Sold to Martine and Bina Rothblatt. 

1951 - The Francis B. and Farrell O. Watson Residence, 2040 NW 11th Road, Gainesville FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell.  Commissioned 1950. Renovated, including a second story, around 1975. Letters about the house are at the University of Florida, according to author Joe King.  Sold in 1990 to Thomas Barrup and Christina Tannen.  Deeded around 2009 to Christina Tannen.

 1951 - The C. Richard Leavengood Residence, 1000 Park Street North, St. Petersburg FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Destroyed. Photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.

1951 - The Lucienne Glorieux Twitchell Neilson Residence, Martha's Vineyard MA.  Address unknown. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. The client was Twitchell's first wife. Commissioned 1947. Destroyed by fire.

 1951 - The Marion Coward Residence, 4023 Shell Road, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Lightweight tent structure with beam down the center.  Architect Richard (Dick) G. Allen rented the house during 1969 and recalls it was a miserably hot house to live in.  Sold to Tom LeFevre. Destroyed around 2005.  B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.

 1951 - The Kate Wheelan Cottage, 9397 Midnight Pass Road, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Destroyed for a multi-family development. Photos from Perspecta.

 1951 - The Haywood Apartments, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Unbuilt.

1951 - The Eugene Knotts Residence, Yankeetown FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Knotts did not like the Rudolph design, citing price and insufficient structural integrity of the roof among other concerns, so the project was abandoned.

Rudolph left the firm around that time and architect Jack West joined. West created a new but more classic Modernist design for Knotts, bottom photo, which was built by Twitchell's brother. Still there as of 2015.

1951 - The Brock House, Florida.  Likely unbuilt. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

1951 - The Hobitzell House, location unknown. Likely unbuilt.  Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

1952 - The Walter W. and Elaine Walker Guest House, aka Cannonball House, 4143 West Gulf Drive, Sanibel Island FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1951. A year earlier Rudolph designed the Walkers a primary residence which was not built. Color photos by Lloyd Alter. Bottom four photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Sold in 2013 to John R. Priest, trustee. A full size replica, built by architect Joe King and others, was on display at the Ringling Museum 2015-2016.

1952 - The Floating Islands Project, Leesburg FL. Unbuilt.

1952 - The Good Design Exhibition, home furnishings selected by the Museum of Modern Art, New York, for the Merchandise Mart in Chicago. Rudolph designed the exhibition layout. The selection committee was Harry Weese, Edgar Kaufmann, and Charles Zadok. Featured in the May 1952 Arts+Architecture magazine.

1952 - The Lewis H. (Lou) and Ruth H. Haskins Residence, 6671 Gulf of Mexico Drive, Longboat Key FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1951. Featured in House and Garden, August 1952. Sold in 1962 to Paul K. and Rachel H. Robertson. Sold in 1963 to Ernest Doke.  Has been destroyed.  Bottom photo by Ezra Stoller/ESTO.

1952 - The Arthur and Grace Moehlman Guest House/Carport, Naples FL. Sometimes referenced as Maehlman due to a mispelling on a tube of drawings.  Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1951. Photos courtesy Library of Congress. Featured in Interiors magazine, September 1952. Possibly on North Lake Drive, needs verification. 

1953 - The Sigma Alpha Epsilon Fraternity House, University of Miami, Miami FL. According to Architectural Forum 99, there were two distinct and separate wings, both two stories high. One contains bedrooms, the other contains the living area. Between them is a spacious court and cylindrical building containing a glassed-in dining room on the lower level and a chapter room on the upper level with louvered walls can be closed to provide privacy for secret cabals. Unbuilt.

1953 - The Nathan S. Rubin Residence, 1221 North Barcelona, Pensacola FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Sold in 1999 to Catherine D. Kress.

1953 - The Bourne Company Residence, St. Petersburg, FL. Unbuilt.

1953 - The Mahony House, 1205 Donna Drive, Fort Myers FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1952. Sold to J. Maggie Stevens and Steve Funnel.

1953 - The Louis C. Cerrito and Ruth Hale Cerrito Addition, oceanfront on Bernard Avenue, Sarasota FL. According to their son Charles Cerrito, Ralph Twitchell designed the original house in 1948, photo. The addition was commissioned in 1952. The house was sold by Cerrito's heirs and destroyed in the early 2000's. 

 1953 - The Lido Shores Show House, aka the Hiss House, aka the Umbrella House, 1300 Westway Drive, Lido Shore, Sarasota FL. Built by Philip Hiss. Sold in the mid-1950's to the Sommers family. Featured in House and Home July 1954 and Arts+Architecture October 1953. The umbrella-like trellis was destroyed in 1966 by Hurricane Alma. Sold in 1969 to Ross and Rachel Van Tilborg. Sold in 1998 to Gary and Carol Stover. After several years on the market, it was sold in 2005 to Vincent and Julie Ciulla. Sold in 2015 to Bob and Anne Essner.

1953 - The Ingram Hook Guest Residence, 160 Sandy Hook Road, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1952. Featured in Arts+Architecture June 1959. Bottom three photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Addition by Walter Maycomber in 1979. Sold to Theodore and Honorine Super. Sold to Robert F. and Doro Brown.

1953 - The James Stroud and Jessie Boyd Project, 14 economical houses in Sarasota FL as a variation of the Lamolithic site plan. Unbuilt.

Around 1954 - The Davis Residence, Sarasota FL. Built. Commissioned 1953. Address unknown, do you know where it is? Status unknown.

1954 - The Alex Miller Residence, Sarasota FL. Unbuilt.

1954 - The Rose Wilson Residence, 1818 Pandora Drive, Coral Cove, Sarasota, FL. Commissioned 1953. BW photos courtesy Library of Congress. Has been renovated such that Modernism is gone.  Sold to Virginia and Robert Howell.

1954 - The R. J. Burgess Residence, Burgess Island FL. Unbuilt.

1954 - The Samuel Rosen House, location unknown.  Likely unbuilt.  Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

1954 - The Grace Moehlman House, Naples FL.  Unbuilt.  Commissioned after the death of her husband.  Unbuilt. Instead, she decided to move into a new house at 600 East Lake Drive, not designed by Rudolph.

1955 - The J. V. Taylor Residence, 324 Tarpon Street, Venice FL. Commissioned 1954. Appeared in Architectural Record November 1958, House and Home February 1958. Photo by Alexandre Georges. Sold to Charles and Geraldyne Carlton; Helen and James Carlton; not sure in what order. Sold in 2012 to Terrance Haas.

1955 - The Kip/Maggard House, location unknown. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

1955 - The David and Elene Cohen Residence, 101 Garden Lane, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1952. Built by Harold Pickett of Monostructure. Featured in Architectural Record May 1956, Progessive Architecture January 1955, Arts+Architecture September 1954. Sold in 2004 to Modernist realtor Martie Lieberman. Restored in 2006 by Seibert Architects with assistance from Bert Brosmith FAIA, manager of Rudolph’s office in 1955 during the original construction. In 2006, Tim Seibert won an AIA FL award for the restoration. Sold in 2009 to Arlene La Marca. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.

1955 - The Everett Ainsworth (Dave) Davidson Residence, 615 65th Street Court NW, Bradenton FL. Commissioned 1953. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Featured in Architectural Record, November 1956.  Has been renovated at least once and is unrecognizable as a Rudolph. 

1956 - The Steadman House, location unknown. Commissioned 1953.  Likely unbuilt. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

1956 - The Louis C. and Ruth H. Cerrito Residence, 74 Oceanview Highway, Westerly RI. Commissioned 1955. Sold in 1969. Sold to Jeffrey and Karen Hogan in 2000. They gave the house in early 2007 to Kevin Lindores and Daniel Sachs who intended to move it to Catskill NY. According to son Charles Cerrito, that deal fell through and the house was destroyed in the summer 2007. Photos by Charles Cerrito. A new house was built on the site, bottom photo.

212 Seabreeze Ave, Delray Beach, FL 33483

212 Seabreeze Ave, Delray Beach, FL 33483

1956 - The Sewell C. Biggs Residence, 212 Seabreeze, Delray Beach FL. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Addition by Rudolph, project architect Bob Currie. Sold in 1973 to designer Virginia Courtenay, who did a second addition.  Expanded from 2 to 5 bedrooms. Sold in 2018.

 1956 - Women's Home Companion Magazine Model Houses.  Four were built.  This one is from 1957 at 859 Edlin Drive, Warson Woods MO, sold in 1995 to Jon and Bonnie Newell. Photos courtesy of Tim Hills. More details by Tim Hills.

9474 Northgate Drive, Allison Park PA.  Photo courtesy of Tim Hills.

2520 West 44th St, Indianapolis IN.  Photo courtesy of Tim Hills.

4317 Dudley Avenue, Indianapolis IN.  Formerly 4400 Dudley. Featured in a local newspaper in Feb 1957. Although the roofline has been flipped to run left to right, you can see the garage, entry placement and kitchen layout are similar and the footprint is correct.
Unfortunately modified awa from the unique design elements. Photo courtesy of Tim Hills.

1956 - Model House Representing the Southeast Housing Homestyle Center, aka Grand Rapids Homestyle Center Residence, Grand Rapids MI. Unbuilt. Other participants included Alden Dow, Harwell Hamilton Harris, George Nelson, and Ralph Rapson.

In 1956 Detroit realtor Jason Honigman conceived a project called The Home Research Foundation to showcase new modernist houses on 80 acres outside Grand Rapids, MI. The press referred to it as "an outdoor museum for houses," "the world's most wondrous village," and, eventually, "the lost theme park." The project was extensively promoted in magazines such as Architectural Record, Arts and Architecture, and Interiors.

The first set of 12 homes was to be designed and started in 1956, followed by 13 in 1957, and 25 more over a span of 3 years, ending in 1960. The Home Research Foundation closed its offices in May 1957 due to funding issues. The Homestyle Center was never built but the original lake around which the houses were to be built is now part of the 132-acre Fredrick Meijer Gardens and Sculpture Park which opened in 1995.

3D rendering by Tim Hills


1956 - The Frank W. and Martha Applebee Residence, aka the Applebee-Shaw House, 316 Chewacla Drive, Auburn AL. Lamar Brown was supervising architect. Harold Swindell was the builder. Was an Architectural Record house of 1956. Sold to William L. and Anne T. Shaw, who still owned it as of 2014. Color photos by M. Lewis Kennedy and Toby Savage.

1956 - The Barnet Yanofsky Residence, 43 Gate House Road, Chestnut Hill MA, near Newton. Sold by the original owner's children around 1998 to Molly Schaeffer and Jeffrey Wallen who did a restoration with architect Rick Ames. B/W photos by Joseph Molitor.

1956 - The Stinnett Residence, 3215 Glenna Lane, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1955. Owned by Diane J. Stinnett as of 2013.

1956 - The Fletcher Residence, Venice FL. Unbuilt.

1957 - The Richard Guy (Dick) Martin Residence, 113 Ridgelawn, formerly numbered 18 Ridgelawn, Athens AL. Commissioned 1956.  Central atrium with outer rings of rooms.  Rudolph went to high school with his brother. Deeded to his wife upon divorce. Martin's son Joe later worked for Rudolph, working on Beekman Place and other projects. Sold around 1976 to Judy Johnson. Guest house added around 2004. Deeded in 2018 to heirs.

1958 - The Gilman House, location unknown. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.  Unbuilt.

 1957 - The Theodore Burkhardt Residence, aka the Burkhardt-Cohen House, 1240 North Casey Key Road, Casey Key, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1956. A young Crutcher Ross watched it being built. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Sold in 1981 to Ed and Betsy Cohen who remain owners as of 2015. Architect Toshiko Mori added the L-shaped guest house in 1998 and a pavilion-addition to the main house in 2003. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Color photos (of the 1998 guest house) by Paul Warchol.

1958 - The Frederick A. (Fred) Deering House, 3013 Casey Key Road, Nokomis FL, on Casey Key near Sarasota. Crutcher Ross was a draftman on the project. Photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Commissioned 1956. Featured in Architectural Forum May 1959; AIA Journal June 1960; Arts+Architecture June 1960; House and Garden Juuly 1960. Addition/renovation in 1961. Renovated and expanded again in the 2000's. Sold to Donald R. Wilborn.

1958 - The Mallory House, location unknown. Commissioned 1957. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.  Unbuilt.

1958 - The Maurits and Claire Edersheim House, 862 Fenimore, Larchmont NY. Commissioned 1954. Renovated several times by Rudolph up to a total of 6500 sf. Sold in 2010 to Joseph Viju.

1958 - The Martin R. and Lillian Pollock Harkavy Residence, 113 Morningside Drive, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1957. In the top photo, the original house is on the left; addition on the right. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Featured in House and Home June 1959, Arts+Architecture June 1959.  Lillian died in 1971 and Martin remarried. Renovated in 1996.  Sold.  Sold again in 2005 to Karen and Hugo Kitzis, who did a 2006 renovation and expansion designed by John Quinn. Sold in 2012 to Bob and Anne Essner.


1959 - The John P. and Alice Fullam (not Fulham) Residence, 372 Brownsburg Road, Newtown area of New Hope PA. 25 acres. Was off the radar for decades. Sold in 2007 to Linda Richardson. Sold in 2014 to Eric Jesse Wolff who expanded and restored it to the larger original Rudolph design in 2015 with architect Wolstenholme and Associates, built by WSCB Worthington and Shagen Custom Builders.  Photos by Chris Mottalini and Eric Wolff.  Added in 2019 to the National Register of Historic Places.

1959 - The R. (Richard) Ambler Liggett and Dorothy L. Liggett Residence, 12183 Fort King Hwy, Thonotosassa FL near Tampa FL. Amber Liggett and Rudolph were at Yale at the same time.  Commissioned 1958.  Featured in Architectural Record Houses of 1962.  Mechanical Engineer, Charles T. Healy.  Structural Engineer, Sidney L. Barber.  Landscape design, Prentiss French.  Built by R. S. Stevens and Sons.  Sold in 1988 to A. Bronson and Stella Thayer.



1960 - The George and Violet McCandlish Renovation, 144 Upland, Cambridge MA. Commissioned 1958. Vappi, Symmes, and Mani were the mechanical engineers. Built by Stanley I. Phalen. Rudolph converted an abandoned garage into a private residence. Featured in Architectural Record Houses of 1960. Designed for two college teachers and their three children. Built in the center of a block of Victorian homes, the building was a community garage that was abandoned and fell into disrepair until the McCandlishes came along. Over 3,000 sf.  Sold in 1966. Sold to George Waldstein. Sold in 2014.

1960 - The Sidney Myer Friedberg and Miriam Arenson Friedberg Residence, Baltimore MD.  Unbuilt, according to their daughter, Laura Rachel Burrows.

1960 - The Vacation House for Women's Day Magazine. Unsure if built.


1961 - The R. H. Daisley Residence, 54 Spanish River Drive, Ocean Ridge, Boynton Beach FL. Commissioned 1960.  B/W photos by Joseph Molitor/Avery Library Columbia University. Sold in 2008 to Eugene Miller.

Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity house on University Avenue at University of Florida - Gainesville, Florida

1960 - The Pi Kappa Phi Fraternity House, 1900 West University Avenue, University of Florida, Gainesville FL. Dramatically altered over the years to have a colonial look, with the enclosure of most open spaces including stairways.

1961 - The Kappa Sigma Fraternity House, 104 Hemlock Drive, Auburn University, Auburn AL.  Has been closed for years.

1961 - The Norbert Leslie Silvas Residence, Greenwich CT. Featured in the November 1962 Architectural Record. Never built, according to the Silvas family. Structural engineer, Herman D. J. Spiegel; mechanical engineer, John L. Alturi. 

1961 - The Arthur W. and Theresa Milam Residence, 1033 Ponte Vedra Boulevard, Ponte Vedra Beach FL. Commissioned 1959. Black and white photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Structural Engineer, Herman D. J. Spiegel, who taught at the Yale School of Architecture from 1955 to 1993 and served as Dean of the School from 1971 to 1976.  Mechanical Engineer, Frank B. Wilder.  Onsite architectural supervision by Robert Ernest.  Architectural Record named it as a 1963 Record House. A guest house wing was added by Rudolph, plus additional garage modifications. For sale for the first time in 2017-2018. Decks were lost in the hurricanes of 2017.


1962 - Yale University Married Student Housing, aka the Mansfield Apartments, 304 Mansfield Street, New Haven CT. 49 units. Commissioned 1960. Color photo by Bruce Barnes. B/W photo by George Czerna.

1962 - The Peter Schub Residence, Long Island NY. Unsure if built, but likely not.


1962 - The Albert Bostwick Residence, Palm Beach FL. Unbuilt. Commissioned around 1954. Bottom rendering by Mark Palacios.

1965 - The John W. and Frances Garth Wallace House, 202 Ridgelawn Drive, Athens AL. Photos from LIFE Magazine Archive.  Commissioned 1961.  Featured in House and Garden, April 1966. Sold in 2015 to Beth Beasley who did a renovation.

1965 - The Callahan Residence, Birmingham AL. Unbuilt.

1965 - The Paul Rudolph Home/Office Renovation, 31 High Street, New Haven CT. Commissioned 1958. Rudolph purchased and dramatically remodeled the interior of this 1850's Victorian Italianate house for a studio and residence.

1965 - The Stanley Kinney Residence, Hamilton NY. Unbuilt.

1966 - The Alexander Hirsch and Lewis Turner Townhouse Renovation, aka Halston House, 101 East 63rd Street, New York NY. Includes a private garage and rooftop deck. 7349 square feet. Featured in Architectural Record Houses of 1970. Built by Blitman Corporation. Sold in 1974 to designer Roy Halston Frowick, aka Halston, who made the townhouse "party central" during the 1970's. In 1990, a few months before Halston died, he sold to Gunter Sachs and Gianni Agnelli. Eventually, Sachs bought out Agnelli's interest and committed suicide in 2011. Sold to Marin and Montanye LLP, an accounting firm, agents for the real owner.  Sold in 2019 to Tom Ford.

1966 - The George Crawford Manor Housing for the Elderly, 90 Park Street, New Haven CT. Commissioned 1962.

1966 - The Joseph Caspi Penthouse Residence, New York NY. Unbuilt.


1967 - Fredella Village Public Housing, 1205 China Street, Vicksburg MS. Assembled from prefab sections in two weeks.  Has been renovated.

 1967 - The Frank and Anne H. Parcells Residence, 3 Cameron Place, Grosse Pointe MI. Sold in 2014 to Ann Stevenson and Curt Catallo.

1967 - The Robert Brown Townhouse Remodel, 251 West 13th Street, New York NY. Originally the 1888 Jackson Square Library. Not sure if the model, bottom photo, was carried through to construction. Sold in 1997 to Tom Fontana who undid most of the Rudolph features.  Top photo by Tom Miller.

1967 - The Aly Kaiser Apartment Renovation, and the Mrs. Henry Kaiser Apartment Renovation, New York NY. Her husband, industrialist Henry J. Kaiser, died in August 1967.

1967 - Lewis S. Davidson Public Housing, New York City Housing Authority, 810 Home Street, Bronx NY.

1967 - The Rain Middletown Senior Center, 3033 Middletown Road, Bronx NY.

 1967 - Tracey Towers Public Housing, 20 and 40 West Mosholu, Bronx NY. Housed 500 residents per tower. Bottom photo by Kelvin Dickinson.

1967 - Married Student Housing for the University of Virginia, Charlottesville VA. Unbuilt.

1968 - The Beneficent House, Weybosset Hill Housing, One Chestnut Street,
Providence RI. Commissioned 1963.

1968 - The Herbert Green Residence, 138 Stonewall Farm Drive, Honesdale (Cherry Ridge) PA. Sold in 1996 to Edward and Ewa Jakubek.


1970 - The Oriental Masonic Gardens Housing, Wilmot Road, New Haven CT. Commissioned 1968.  Built by the Prince Hall order of Masons with a HUD mortgage for $3.5 million, the private Oriental Masonic Gardens consisted of 148 prefab units on 12.5 acres. Residences were grouped in fours with a lower module containing living spaces and a module above with bedrooms. They were expensive to build, they leaked, they were ugly, people hated them, and they were destroyed in 1981, a mere 11 years later.  Last photo is from 1980.

Paper written by William Brenner in 1971, who in 2016 wants you to know this was a youthful project.

1968 - Fort Lincoln Public Housing, Washington DC. Unbuilt.

1969 - The Harry Raich Residence, Quogue, NY. Unbuilt.

1969 - The Arne and Eleanor L. B. Lewis Residence, Boston MA.
Built, according to the PRHF. Status and address unknown. Do you know where it is?

1969 - The Richard Chadwick Pistell Residence, Lyford Cay, Nassau, Bahamas. Unbuilt.




1969 - The Gardner and Jan Cowles Apartment Renovation, 84 Mercer Street, New York NY.  At 9000+ sf, one of the largest single-floor apartments in New York at the time. For sale in 2012.

1970 - The Maurice Deane Residence, 35 Pheasant Run, Great Neck NY. Built by Anderson Brothers. Sturctural engineer, Paul Gugliotta. Featured in Architectural Record Houses of 1976. Sold to the Dabah family.

1970 - The John M. Shuey Residence, Bloomfield Hills MI. Unbuilt.

1970 - The Maurits and Claire Edersheim Apartment, 927 Fifth Avenue, New York NY. Still owned by the Edersheims as of 2007.

1970 - New York Public Housing, 725 units in New York NY. Unbuilt.

1970 - Kew Gardens, ten apartment towers (4,000 units) of public housing, Queens NY. Unbuilt.

1971 - The Sid R. and Anne H. Bass Residence, 1801 Deepdale Drive, Fort Worth TX. Rudolph's biggest single-family project. Commissioned 1970. Deeded through divorce to Anne H. Bass. Bottom three photos by Tony Monk. Was for sale in 2014; then withdrawn.


1971 - The Lee and Dorothea Elman Apartment Renovation, 1 West 64th Street, New York NY. Commissioned around 1969.  Furniture and decorative arts. Built.


1971 - The Bert Dweck Residence, 4 Parker Avenue, Deal NJ. B/W photos by Donald Luckenbill. Renovations by Rudolph in 1986.

 1971 - The William and Karen Davidson Residence, 4475 Lahser Road, Bloomfield Hills MI. Unbuilt.  The Davidsons later built the house above, designed by Young and Young.

1972 - The Louis Micheels Residence, 16 Minute Man Hill, Westport CT. Sold to David and Yvette Waldman. B/W photos by Donald Luckenbill. 5th and 6th photos by Chris Mottalini, taken just before the house was destroyed in early 2007, after a brief court fight between the owners and preservationists. Bottom photo of the demolition by Dave Matlow. According to the New York Times, negotiations to save the house failed even though there was a buyer: Steven Campus, then owner of Rudolph's Beekman Place in Manhattan.

1972 - Buffalo Waterfront Housing, aka Shoreline Apartments, 200 Niagara Street, Buffalo NY. Commissioned 1969. Top photo was his original plan, unbuilt. Second photo is what actually got funded and built. 142 units. Featured in the September 1972 edition of Architectural Record. In 2007, a renovation merged many smaller units to a new count of 87. In November 2013, the City Planning Board met to review plans submitted by Norstar Development that would demolish five buildings of the complex. Status unknown.

 1972 - The John Pillsbury Residence, Cannes, France. Unbuilt.

1972 - The John B. Rogers Residence, Houston TX. Unbuilt.  Rudolph designed an addition to their beach house in Palm Beach FL in 1983, also unbuilt.

1973 - The Erwin P. Staller Residence, 19 Count Rumford Lane, Lloyd Harbor NY. Still owned by Staller as of 2011.

1973 - The Paul Rudolph Residence, 23 Beekman Place, New York NY. Commissioned 1967. He designed and built various renovations and additions (1977) through his death. Sold to Gabrielle and Michael Boyd. Sold to Steven Campus in 2003. Renovated by Della Valle Bernheimer in 2004, adding air conditioning and a sprinkler system. Sold to Mark Fletcher. For rent as of 2013. Top left photo by Catherine Nance. Other photos by Richard Barnes.

In 1990, attorney Leslie Friedman bought the 3rd floor apartment and in 1992 consulted with Rudolph for renovation and decorative advice.

1973 - Residence Hall for 200 students, Davidson College, Davidson NC. Unbuilt.

1973 - The Carol Housing Corporation Project, 3500 housing units in Miami FL. Unbuilt.

1973 - Modular Housing Exhibition.  Unbuilt.

1974 - The Morgan Annex Housing, New York.  Unbuilt.

1974 - The Niel C. Morgan Residence, Aspen CO. Unbuilt.

1974 - The Pan-Lon Engineering and Construction Company Apartment Hotel, Jerusalem, Israel. Unbuilt. 

1974 - The Henry Van Os, Sr. Residence, Atlanta GA. Unbuilt. His son, Henry III, said in 2015 that he does not recall his parents commissioning Rudolph; although he his mother definitely was into Modernist design. His father was much more traditional and later built a very traditional house. 

1974 - The Joanna T. Steichen Apartment Renovation, 455 East 51st Street, New York NY. Commissioned 1973.  Peter Mullen was the project architect. Featured in GA Houses 5. Steichen bought it in 1973 and the renovation included multilevel interior galleries, a flying staircase, and an exterior balcony on the river side. In the autumn of 1974, featured in the New York Times and in Vogue, where it was called a "house in an apartment." Sold in 1985.

1974 - The Lee and Dorothea Elman Renovation, aka Aston Magna, Great Barrington MA. Built. Status and address unknown.  Dorothea created furniture out of tractor tires, above photo.

Image result for gary strutin, residence, new rochelle ny

1975 - The Gary Strutin Apartment, 115 Cedar Street, New Rochelle NY. 2200 sf on the top floor of his plastics business. The exterior was painted pink and purple to be visible from nearby I-95.  He moved to another location in 1999.  

1975 - The Howard Blum Apartment Renovation, New York NY. Unbuilt. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

1976 - The Nancy E. Houston Residence, 46 Knowles Avenue, Westerly RI. She bought the land with her father, Livingston Houston, in 1975. Commissioned 1975. Sold in 1992 to Barbara Ellinghaus. Available for rent each July.

1978 - The Robert and Joan Bernhard Addition, 21 Hycliff Road, Greenwich CT. Commissioned 1976.

1978 - The Mikhail Baryshnikov House and Studio, Sherman CT. Unbuilt. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

1977 - The Ronald D. Fein Addition, Sands Point NY.  Unbuilt.

1978 - The Vallo M. Benjamin Residence, 322 East 57th, Unit 4/5B, New York NY.  Benjamin still owner as of 2013.

1978 - The Martin R. and Renate B. Harkavy House, 2512 Riverview Drive, Sarasota FL.  Not a Paul Rudolph design.  However, Renate Harkavy took the basic form of their previous Rudolph house and adapted it.  The Harkavys were still owners as of 2015. 


1978 - The Richard Young Residence, Livingston Manor NY. Unbuilt.

1978 - The Rafael Carrillo Residence, New York NY. Unbuilt.

1978 - The Dani and Irene Siegel Remodel, 351 Dune Road, Westhampton Beach NY.

1978 - The Robert Hedaya House, Deal NJ.  Status and address unknown. Possibly 48 Monmouth, needs verification.

1979 - The Hong Fok Investment Holdings Private Ltd. Apartments, Singapore. 74 units. Unbuilt.

1978 - The Donald and Cynthia Zucker Remodel, 42 West 11th Street, New York NY. Cynthia Zucker remarried George Marks. They did a 1993 renovation with Rudolph. Interiors by Cecil Hayes. Deeded to Cynthia Zucker. Sold in 2012 to 42W11 LLC, a lobbying firm.

1980 - Ten Bungalows for the Hong Fok Investment Holding Company, Hong Kong.  Unbuilt.

1980 - The Henry Kwee Residence, Singapore. Unbuilt.

1980 - The Hugh and Ruth Downs Residence, CT. Built.  According to Ernst Wagner, there was a lawsuit at some point, needs more detail.

1981 - The Kenneth Sherman Renovation and Addition, Wilton CT. Built.  Status and address unknown.

1982 - aka the Beverly Park Estates House, Beverly Hills CA. Unbuilt. Original development was to be 189 houses, taken down to 80 (lots of opposition from surrounding neighborhoods and Teamsters).  Streets weren't designed until late 1984 and first house for sale was in 1986.

1982 - The Mark Edersheim Additions, 862 Fenimore Road, Mamaroneck NY. Rudolph also did additions to this 1958 house in 1989 and 1991. Second photo is of guest house. Photos by Elizabeth Dooley. Deeded to Claire Edersheim. Deeded in 2010 to Elizabeth and Steven Edersheim. Sold in 2010 to Joseph Ramya and Joseph Viju.

1983 - The Michael Floersheim / Strauss Residence, New York NY. Unsure if built. Status unknown.

1983 - The John B. Rogers Addition, Palm Beach, FL. Unbuilt.

1983 - The Hillel and Marsha Tobias Remodel, 31 Tuthill Lane, Remsenburg-Speonk NY. Unsure if completed.  Sold to Marvin Natiss and Wendy Tobias.  Sold in 2005 to Herbert Tobias.  Sold in 2010 to James and Donna Krass. Photo above is house onsite as of 2018.

1984 - The Eisner Residence Remodel, Westport CT. Unsure if built.


 1984 - The Michael and Joan Lenihan Glazer Residence, 4686 West 6th Street, Los Angeles CA. 17000 sf. Commissioned 1979. Sold in 1992 to Lonnie C. Blanchard. Sold in 2000 to Michele M. Goffin. Rents for $32,000/month as of 2015.



1984 - The George F. and Mary Pavarini Residence, aka Clifton-On-The-Sound, 183 Byram Shore, Greenwich CT. Sold in 2012 to Kadymama LLC.  Destroyed.

 1985 - The Marvin and Sybil B. Licht Renovation, 211 Everit Avenue, Hewlett Harbor NY.  Sold to new owners who undid much of Rudolph's work.

 1985 - The Cheng Wai Keung Residence, 48 Nassim Road, Singapore. The project architect was Frederick Gibson.   

1985 - The Fisher Island Hotel and Condominiums, Miami FL. Unbuilt.

 1986 - The Wylie Tuttle Residence, 6360 Swan Creek Road, Rock Hall MD. Still in the Tuttle family in 2017.

1986 - The C. Gordon Murphy Residence, Greenwich CT. Unbuilt.

1986 - The Donald and Cecile Engel Renovation and Addition, 20 Pleasant Ridge Road, Harrison NY. Rudolph added a pavilion in 1994. 7370 sf.  Deeded to Cecile Engel.  Has been a rental.  The interior is an unusual mix of traditional and modern.

1986 - The Richard C. Treistman Renovation and Addition, 550 Illingworth Avenue, Englewood NJ. Sold in 2018 to Betty Jan Turen.

19 Greentree Ln, Chester, NY 10918

1986 - 19 Greentree Lane, Chester NY.  Not a Rudolph design. Features a helipad.  Sold to Susan Jessup.  Sold in 1995 to Tina B. Carver and Eugene Podhurst.  Sold in 1999 to David H. and Melan Vitali.  Remodeled and expanded in 2001. 

For sale 2014-2018, advertised as a Paul Rudolph design, based on a claim by the owner. We found no evidence to support that claim whatsoever, and the owner declined to produce any.


1987 - The Colonnade Condos for Pontiac Land Private Ltd., Singapore. Commissioned 1980. Interior photos by Peter Aaron/ESTO.  Consists of 90 condominium units on “28 stories” because the entire structure is on pillars and does not begin on ground level. There are 27 simplex (one level) 3 bedroom units at 3600sf, 30  duplex level three bedroom units at 3900sf, 29 duplex level two bedroom units with study at 2800 sf, four penthouses on the top of the building, three being around 7000sf, and one super penthouse of 3 stories close to 12,600 sf that hovers over a roof garden that includes a private pool.  All the above configurations include a maids room typical for Singapore but does not count as a bedroom.

1989 - The Institution Hill Condos, Singapore. Unbuilt. Project designer, Frederick Gibson.

1989 - The Paul Rudolph and Ernst Wagner Townhouse, aka the Modulightor Building, 246 East 58th Street, New York NY. Home of the Paul Rudolph Heritage Foundation. Still owned by Ernst Wagner as of 2018.

1989 - Commercial/Residential Building Renovation, New York NY. Unbuilt.

Chatsworth Road


1990 - The Wee Ee Chao Residence, 9A Chatsworth Road, Singapore. Thought to be unbuilt for decades, it indeed was built. The large screens have been removed.  Rented to the Government of Ireland as an Ambassador's residence as of 2011.

1991 - The Manny Fox and Cynthia Firestone Residence, aka Fox-Firestone, Sherman CT. Unbuilt.

1991 - The Spyro Contogouris House, New York.  Unbuilt.  Source:  Timothy Rohan, The Architecture of Paul Rudolph.

1991 - The Cheng Wai Keung Residence 1, Singapore. Commissioned 1986. Unbuilt.

1993 - The Donald and Cynthia Zucker House, Easthampton, Long Island NY.  Unbuilt.

1993 - 32nd Street Southeast Company Apartments, aka The Future, 200 East 32nd Street, New York. Commissioned 1989.  Designed with Costas Kondylis. Developed by Donald Zucker, 165 condominium apartments.

1994 - The Jonathan Formanek Residence, Memphis TN. Unsure if built.

1994 - The Ernst Wagner Residence, Switzerland. Unbuilt. Wagner was Rudolph's personal partner for the last 20 years of his life and created the Paul Rudolph Foundation and the Paul Rudolph Heritage Foundation.


1994 - The Wee Ee Chao Apartment Duplex, Hong Kong. Unbuilt.

1994 - The Concourse, Beach Road, Singapore.  Designed with Architects 61.  Includes nine stories of apartments.


 1995 - The Cheng Wai Keung Residence 2, 16 Peel Road, Singapore. 

1995 - The Gloria Lee House, Singapore.  Unsure if built.



 1997 - The David Eu Residence, 7 Camden Park, Singapore. Commissioned 1994.  Long thought unbuilt, it was discovered in 2019 by researcher Eric Wolff.

1998 - The Jim Willenborg House, aka the Obokoji House, 1766 Alabama, San Francisco CA. Commissioned 1993. For rent in 2013.

Year unknown - The Bideford House, location unknown. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

Year unknown - The Denzler Apartment, location unknown. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

Year unknown - The Rooseno House, Jakarta. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

Year unknown - The McClosky Addition, location unknown. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

Year unknown - The Lily Simons House, location unknown. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

Year unknown - The Poole House, location unknown. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

Year unknown - The Pease House, Jakarta. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

Year unknown - The Poon House, location unknown. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

Year unknown - The Kendrick House, location unknown. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

Year unknown - The Johnson House, location unknown. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

Year unknown - The Gellert House, location unknown. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

Year unknown - The Fullam House, Jakarta. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

Year unknown - The Fownes House, location unknown. Source:  Library of Congress Rudolph project list.

All of these are most likely unbuilt.

Sources include: Rudolph Archive at UMass, Paul Rudolph Foundation Blog, Paul Rudolph Foundation, Charles Cerrito, Paul Rudolph: Architecture and Urbanism 1946-1974 (in Chinese), Crutcher Ross, The Sarasota School of Architecture 1941-1966 by John Howey, Goshen Chronicle, Frederick Gibson, Paul Rudolph: The Florida Houses by Domin and King, Catherine Westergaard Cramer, The Architecture of Paul Rudolph by Timothy Rohan.