PAUL MARVIN RUDOLPH, FAIA (1918-1997)
Rudolph grew up in Elkton KY. In 1940 Rudolph earned his bachelor's degree in architecture at Auburn University, then known as Alabama Polytechnic Institute. After working briefly with E. B. Van Koeren in Birmingham AL and Ralph Twitchell in Sarasota FL, he entered the Harvard Graduate School of Design in 1941 to study under Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius. In 1942, Rudolph began Naval officer training at MIT and Princeton University. Afterwards, he served in the Navy for three years before returning to Harvard to earn his Masters degree in 1947. In 1948, Rudolph won Harvard Graduate School of Design's annual traveling fellowship. He traveled throughout Europe until the summer of 1949 when Ralph Twitchell offered him full partnership. Rudolph moved to Sarasota FL for that job until 1951 when he founded his own firm.
In Florida, Rudolph became a leader of the what became known as the Sarasota school (although there was never a formal school) of architecture associated with architects Ralph Twitchell, Ralph Zimmerman, William Zimmerman, Philip Hiss, Jack West, Gene Leedy, Mark Hampton, Phil Hall, Roland Sellew, Tim Seibert, Victor Lundy, Bill Rupp, John and Ken Warriner, Tolyn Twitchell, Bert Brosmith, Frank Folsom Smith, Boyd Blackner, Louis Schneider, James Holiday, Joseph Farrell, and Carl Abbott. The Sarasota style emphasized architecture in harmony with its water surroundings. Elements were clean, open floor plans; terrazzo floors; an abundance of natural light from extensive glazing; and flat roofs with wide overhangs to shade the glazing. Ralph Twitchell's nephew, Jack Twitchell, built many of Rudolph's houses.
Rudolph moved to the Yale School of Architecture to become Chair of the Department of Architecture in 1958, shortly after designing the Yale Art and Architecture Building, a structure considered his masterpiece, below. He moved to New York in 1966 where he remained for the rest of his life. Rudolph inspired a generation of architects. The US public, however, did not warm to his large brutalist designs, often finding the intense use of concrete and steel to be ugly and oppressive. Rudolph shifted to Singapore and Hong Kong, where he was heralded and highly sought after by business and industry.
This page is the official Rudolph residential index for the Paul Rudolph Heritage Foundation, founded in 2015 by Ernst Wagner and as of 2021 headed by Kelvin Dickinson. That is different from the Paul Rudolph Foundation, also founded by Wagner in 2002 but as of 2021 led by architect George Balle.
In 1997, Rudolph passed away in New York City. According to his obituary in The New York Times, "With the exception of Louis I. Kahn, no American architect of his generation enjoyed higher esteem in the 1960s. But after 1970, his reputation plummeted. Many of his buildings are being torn down, or are in danger of being torn down. Mr. Rudolph leaves behind a perplexing legacy that will take many years to untangle." At the time of his death he was working on plans for a new town of 250,000 people in Indonesia and several projects in Singapore. In North Carolina, he designed the 1972 Burroughs Wellcome Headquarters shown below along with additions in 1976, 1978, and 1982. The entire site was sold to United Therapeutics in 2012. The lab buildings and some of the Administration Building were destroyed in 2016.
United Therapeutics saved much of the original building above as part of a new lab campus, as yet unbuilt, the main building of which is shown below. Video. Due to prevalent asbestos and other issues, destroyed 2021. Full historical writeup. Drone video.
Rudolph and Renewal: documentary about urban renewal in New Haven with a focus on Rudolph
Concretopia: documentary about the Rudolph's Dartmouth campus
A 1983 documentary, Spaces, was made by Bob Eisenhardt.
Research by Catherine Westergaard Cramer. Additional Resources: Paul Rudolph Foundation, Paul Rudolph Heritage Foundation, Facebook Fan / News Page, Rudolph Archive at UMass Dartmouth, Rudolph Interview Transcript
1940 - The T. P. Atkinson Residence, 628 East Samford Avenue, Auburn AL. Commissioned 1939. Rudolph was only 22 when he designed and supervised construction of this house for an Auburn University professor. Although not Modernist, the one-story brick building incorporated new technical innovations such as central heating, corner windows and a copper standing seam roof. Sold to Steve Etheridge. Sold in 2013 to Kathy and Bernie Simmons.
1941 - The Ralph Twitchell Residence, 101 Big Pass Lane, Siesta Key FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Featured in Architectural Forum, September 1947. As of 1969, the owners were Garrison and Marjorie Creighton. Sold in 2005 to architect Joe King. Damaged by fire, the house was dismantled and put into storage in 2007; the land was unbuilt as of 2013, bottom photo. King sold the house, still in a tractor-trailer, in 2019. Top photo by Sarasota County History Center; next by Joseph Steinmetz; remaining photos by Chris Mottalini.
1941 - 904 Virginia Drive, Sarasota FL. A Ralph Twitchell design, it was erroneously advertised in 2020 as a Paul Rudolph.
1946 - The Alexander S. (Al) and Leona B. Harkavy Residence, 4018 Roberts Point Road, Siesta Key FL. Featured in Architectural Forum, September 1947. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Harkavy died in 1956; his executor was Martin R. Harkavy. There was at least one addition. Sold in 1986 to John C. Greer. Was a rental for years. For sale in 2015 as a teardown. B/W photos by Joseph Steinmetz from Architectural Forum.
1946 - The Marion Miller Boat House, Casey Key, Sarasota FL. Unbuilt. Designed with Ralph Twitchell.
1946 - The Muniz House, location unknown. Likely unbuilt. Designed with Ralph Twitchell.
1946 - aka the Weekend House, Rudolph's graduate school project at Harvard. Unbuilt. The basic design was later used for Roberta Finney, below, also unbuilt.
1947 - The Burt J. Denman Residence, 4822 Ocean Boulevard, Siesta Key FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1946. Appeared in Progressive Architecture, August 1950. Photos courtesy Library of Congress. Destroyed and replaced with condos, bottom photo.
1947 - The Roberta Healy Finney Guest House, aka Finney Guest Cottage, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Unbuilt.
1947 - The Goar Residence, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Unbuilt.
1947 - The Shute Residence, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Unbuilt.
Main House, above
Guest House, above
1948 - The Marion "Monks" Miller Residence, 2209 Casey Key Road, Nokomis FL. Commissioned 1947. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Won an 1949 Progressive Architecture Award. Rudolph and Twitchell also designed a 1949 guest house. Miller married Mario Lucci, who lived there until 1971. Sold to a person who expanded it.
Author Stephen King lost the bidding in 1999 to buyers Walter and Marilyn Kreiseder, who sought someone to move the main house prior to new construction. The main house was destroyed, as a new 25,000 sf home went up in 2003, bottom photo. The guest house fate is unknown. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1948 - The Maynard E. (Russ) and Phyllis Boggs Russell Residence, 945 Whitakers Lane, Sarasota FL. Original street name was Palmetto Lane. Commissioned 1947. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Featured in: Architectural Record, January 1950; and House and Garden, December 1949. The Russells moved out around 1968 and their son Jon moved in for about four years, according to Jon's sister Barbara Sue Russell Michel. Destroyed in the 1990s with a new house built in 1994. Photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1948 - The Joseph Janney Steinmetz Photography Studio, 1614 Laurel Street, Sarasota FL. Not a house. Commissioned 1947. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Was significantly altered. Destroyed in the 2000s. Photos by Sarasota County Historical Resources.
1948 - The Lamolithic/J. E. Lambie Development, 5528, 5540, 5544, 5546 Avenida Del Mare, Siesta Key FL. Made of concrete. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Above photos are of 5540.
1948 - The Roberta Healy Finney House, aka the Revere Quality House, 100 Ogden Lane, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell, who fell in love with and moved in with the client. The house was a cooperative project between the two architects, Architectural Forum, Revere Copper and Brass, and the builders John Lambie of Lamolithic Industries. There were originally going to be eight houses like this around the country. When this house opened, over 16,000 people visited the first year. It was featured in: House and Garden, August 1949; Architectural Forum, October 1948; and Architectural Review, November 1948. Roberta Finney died in 1966. Twitchell lived there until his death in 1978 and the house stayed with the Twitchell family. Sold in 2003 to Doug Olson. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
In 2005, Olson sold 50% to developer Howard Rooks and they commissioned a 2007 restoration to the original design and a new companion house for the site by architect Guy Peterson (color photos). Built by Daniel (Pat) Ball. The Revere site became the pool house. Added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2008. Sold to Robert and Mich Lomnitz. Sold in 2017 to David S. Zaccardelli Living Trust. Won a 2004 AIA Gulf Coast Merit Award; 2004 AIA Florida Merit Award; 2011 AIA Florida Honor Award.
1948 - The Albert T. and Lois Siegrist Residence, 520 Valencia Road, Venice FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Chosen as a house of "quality and significance" by the NY Museum of Modern Art for an exhibition in 1952. Featured in: Progressive Architecture, June 1949; and Arts+Architecture, April 1953. Sold around 1959 to Robert Leonard Corcoran and Vivian Corcoran. Sold in 1979 and renovated into an Italianate villa, bottom photo (from 2010).
1949 - The Edward Deeds Residence, 5242 Avenida Del Mare, Siesta Key FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1948. Featured in Architectural Forum, April 1950. Renovations in 1969. Sold around 1983 to Marvin and Teresa Emery, still owners as of 2018. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto; bottom two photos by Jan-Richard Kikkert.
1949 - The Arthur C. Cheatham Pool and Pool House Addition, 120 Kenwith Road, Lakeland FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Original house was built in 1935. Featured in: Home and Garden, 1951; and Progressive Architecture, February 1952. Sold in 1995 to James Bush. As of 2018 still standing but altered. Color photo and rendering by Tim Hills.
1950 - The W. R. Healy Guest House, aka the Cocoon House, 3575 Bayou Louise Lane, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. The Healys were the parents of Roberta Healy Finney. Commissioned 1948. Featured in: Architectural Forum, June 1951; House and Home, February 1952; and Arts+ Architecture, June 1959. The roof structure is an original technological assembly: the steel straps are fastened to flexible insulation boards, and the roofing material, Cocoon, is sprayed on. This flexible vinyl compound was developed by the U.S. military to encase ship components from the weather. About 1955, the house needed to be reroofed and a young Crutcher Ross was on that roofing crew. Sold to Barry J. (Jim) LaClair. Rented to the Sarasota Architecture Foundation for a year starting in April 2018. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1950 - The Burnette Residence, 1201 Hillview Drive, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Sold around 1963 to Michael and Cynthia Lieberbaum. Remodeled in the mid-1990s by Joe Angeleri. Sold in 2016 to Robert L. Taylor. Destroyed in 2018. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto; bottom two color photos by Harold Bubil.
1950 - The Per Scheutz Apartments, Sarasota FL. Likely unbuilt. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
1951 - The Allen and Barbara Bennett Residence, 3901 Riverview Boulevard, Bradenton FL. Commissioned 1949. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Sold to a new owner. Sold in 1993 to architect/author Joseph King did a restoration and later wrote extensively on Rudolph. Sold in 2011 to Robin Zimmerman. For sale in 2020. Top photo by Bobby Bennett.
1951 - The W. W. Kerr Residence, 211 Oak Street, Melbourne Beach FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. 2900 sf. Sold in 1988 to Joseph and Hope Petrone. Renovated and expanded in 2007 by architect Larry Maxwell of Spacecoast Architects. Sold to Martine and Bina Rothblatt.
1951 - The Francis B. and Farrell O. Watson Residence, 2040 Northwest 11th Road, Gainesville FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1950. Renovated, including a second story, around 1975. Letters about the house are at the University of Florida, according to author Joe King. Sold in 1990 to Thomas Barrup and Christina Tannen. Deeded around 2009 to Christina Tannen.
1951 - The Lucienne Glorieux Twitchell Neilson Residence, Martha's Vineyard MA. Address unknown. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. The client was Twitchell's first wife. Commissioned 1947. Destroyed by fire.
1951 - The Marion Coward Residence, 4023 North Shell Road, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Lightweight tent structure with beam down the center. Architect Richard (Dick) G. Allen rented the house during 1969 and recalls it was a miserably hot house to live in. Sold to Tom LeFevre. Destroyed around 2005. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1951 - The Kate Wheelan Cottage, 9397 Midnight Pass Road, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Destroyed for a multi-family development. Photos from Perspecta.
1951 - The Haywood Apartments, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Unbuilt.
1951 - The Eugene Knotts Residence, Yankeetown FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Knotts did not like the Rudolph design, citing price and insufficient structural integrity of the roof among other concerns, so the project was abandoned.
Rudolph left the firm around that time and architect Jack West joined. West created a new but more classic Modernist design for Knotts, bottom photo, which was built by Twitchell's brother. Still there as of 2015.
1951 - The Brock House, Florida. Likely unbuilt. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
1951 - The Hobitzell House, location unknown. Likely unbuilt. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
1952 - The Walter W. and Elaine Walker Guest House, aka Cannonball House, 4143 West Gulf Drive, Sanibel FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1951. A year earlier Rudolph designed the Walkers a primary residence which was not built. Sold in 2013 to John R. Priest, trustee. Sold in 2019. Color photos by Lloyd Alter; bottom four photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
A full size replica, built by architect Joe King and others, was on display at the Ringling Museum 2015-2016. It was moved to Palm Springs in 2019 for an exhibition and was sold in 2020.
1952 - The Floating Islands Resort Project, Leesburg FL. Unbuilt.
1952 - The Good Design Exhibition, home furnishings selected by the Museum of Modern Art, New York, for the Merchandise Mart in Chicago. Rudolph designed the exhibition layout. The selection committee was Harry Weese, Edgar Kaufmann, and Charles Zadok. Featured in Arts+Architecture, May 1952.
1952 - The Lewis H. (Lou) and Ruth H. Haskins Residence, 6671 Gulf of Mexico Drive, Longboat Key FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1951. Featured in House and Garden, August 1952. Sold in 1962 to Paul K. and Rachel H. Robertson. Sold in 1963 to Ernest Doke. Destroyed. Bottom photo by Ezra Stoller/ ESTO.
1952 - The Arthur Bernard Moehlman and Grace Fletcher Moehlman Guest House/Carport, 225 North Lake Drive, Naples FL. Commissioned 1951. Sometimes referenced as Maehlman due to a misspelling on a tube of drawings. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Arthur Moehlman died in late 1952 and the house was deeded to Grace. Their children were John Henry Moehlman, who graduated from Harvard in Architecture in 1947, and Jeanne Helen Moehlman, later Alzamora. Featured in Interiors magazine, September 1952. Main house remains as of 2019, but the guest house was destroyed at some point, according to the Paul Rudolph Heritage Foundation. Photos courtesy of the Library of Congress.
1953 - The Sigma Alpha Epsilon Fraternity House, University of Miami, Miami FL. According to Architectural Forum 99, there were two distinct and separate wings, both two stories high. One contains bedrooms, the other contains the living area. Between them is a spacious court and cylindrical building containing a glassed-in dining room on the lower level and a chapter room on the upper level with louvered walls can be closed to provide privacy for secret cabals. Unbuilt.
1953 - The Nathan S. Rubin Residence, 1221 North Barcelona Street, Pensacola FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Sold in 1999 to Catherine D. Kress.
1953 - The Bourne Company Residence, St. Petersburg, FL. Unbuilt.
1953 - The Mahony House, 1205 Donna Drive, Fort Myers FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1952. Sold to J. Maggie Stevens and Steve Funnel.
1953 - The Louis C. Cerrito and Ruth Hale Cerrito Addition, oceanfront on Bernard Avenue, Sarasota FL. According to their son Charles Cerrito, Ralph Twitchell designed the original house in 1948, photo. The addition was commissioned in 1952. The house was sold by Cerrito's heirs and destroyed in the early 2000s.
1953 - The Philip Hiss House and Studio, aka Lido Shores Show House, aka the Umbrella House, 1300 Westway Drive, Lido Shores, Sarasota FL. Built by Philip Hiss. Tim Seibert was the draftsman for the studio. One of the first houses designed to accommodate air conditioning. Sold in the mid-1950s to the Sommers family. Featured in: House and Home, July 1954; and Arts and Architecture, October 1953. The umbrella-like trellis was destroyed in 1966 by Hurricane Alma. Sold in 1969 to Ross and Rachel Van Tilborg. Sold in 1998 to Gary and Carol Stover. After several years on the market, it was sold in 2005 to Vincent and Julie Ciulla. Sold in 2015 to Bob and Anne Essner.
1953 - The Ingram Hook Guest Residence, 160 Sandy Hook Road North, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1952. Featured in Arts+ Architecture, June 1959. Addition in 1979 by Walter Maycomber. Sold to Theodore and Honorine Super. Sold to Robert F. and Doro Brown. Bottom three photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1953 - The James Stroud and Jessie Boyd Project, Sarasota FL. 14 economical houses as a variation of the Lamolithic site plan. Unbuilt.
1954 - The Davis Residence, 7411 Periwinkle, Sarasota FL. It was the showcase house for the Coral Cove development, according to author Joe King. Project architect, William Rupp. Commissioned 1953. James Stroud was the superintendent. Sold several times and modified; sold to Patricia Hughes. Sold to John and Charmienne Pohlman who did further renovations. Bottom two photos by Janet Minker.
1954 - The Alex Miller Residence, Sarasota FL. Unbuilt.
1954 - The Rose Wilson Residence, 1818 Pandora Drive, Coral Cove, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1953. Renovated such that Modernist design is gone. Sold to Virginia and Robert Howell. B/W photos courtesy Library of Congress.
1954 - The R. J. Burgess Residence, Burgess Island FL. Unbuilt.
1954 - The Samuel Rosen House, location unknown. Likely unbuilt. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
1954 - The Grace Moehlman House, Naples FL. Unbuilt. Commissioned after the death of her husband, Arthur. Instead of building, she decided to move into a new house at 600 East Lake Drive, not designed by Rudolph.
1955 - The J. V. Taylor Residence, 324 Tarpon Street, Venice FL. Commissioned 1954. Appeared in: Architectural Record, November 1958; and House and Home, February 1958. Sold to Charles and Geraldyne Carlton; Helen and James Carlton; not sure in what order. Sold in 2012 to Terrance Haas. Photo by Alexandre Georges.
1955 - The Kip/Maggard House, location unknown. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
1955 - The David and Elene Cohen Residence, 101 Garden Lane, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1952. Built by Harold Pickett of Monostructure. A unbuilt plan was featured in Arts+Architecture, September 1954 and Progressive Architecture, January 1955. The built house, somewhat smaller, was featured in Architectural Record, May 1956; Sold in 2004 to Modernist realtor Martie Lieberman. Restored in 2006 by Seibert Architects with assistance from Bert Brosmith FAIA, manager of Rudolph's office in 1955 during the original construction. In 2006, Tim Seibert won an AIA FL award for the restoration. Sold in 2009 to Arlene La Marca. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1955 - The Everett Ainsworth (Dave) Davidson Residence, 615 65th Street Court NW, Bradenton FL. Commissioned 1953. Featured in Architectural Record, November 1956. Has been renovated at least once and is unrecognizable as a Rudolph design. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1956 - The Steadman House, location unknown. Commissioned 1953. Likely unbuilt. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
1956 - The Louis C. and Ruth H. Cerrito Residence, 74 Ocean View Highway, Westerly RI. Commissioned 1955. Sold in 1969. Sold in 2000 to Jeffrey and Karen Hogan. They gave the house in early 2007 to Kevin Lindores and Daniel Sachs who intended to move it to Catskill NY. According to son Charles Cerrito, that deal fell through and the house was destroyed in the summer 2007. A new house was built on the site, bottom photo. Photos by Charles Cerrito.
1956 - The Sewell C. Biggs Residence, 212 Seabreeze Avenue, Delray Beach FL. Addition by Rudolph, project architect Bob Currie. Sold in 1973 to designer Virginia Courtenay, who did a second addition. Expanded from 2 to 5 bedrooms. Sold in 2018 to Nina and Michael Marco, who planned a renovation and expansion. They took the building down to the steel, which caused a 2021 dispute with the City, which in turn stopped their project. As of April 2021, the owners await a hearing. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1956 - The Women's Home Companion Magazine Model Houses. Four were built. The photos above show an example from 1957 at 859 Edlin Drive, St. Louis MO. Sold in 1995 to Jon and Bonnie Newell. Photos courtesy of Tim Hills. More details by Tim Hills.
9474 Northgate Drive, Allison Park PA. Photo courtesy of Tim Hills.
2520 West 44th St, Indianapolis IN. Photo courtesy of Tim Hills.
4317 Dudley Avenue, Indianapolis IN. Formerly 4400 Dudley. Featured in a local newspaper in February 1957. Although the roofline has been flipped to run left to right, you can see the garage, entry placement and kitchen layout are similar and the footprint is correct. Unfortunately modified away from the unique design elements. Photo courtesy of Tim Hills.
1956 - Model House Representing the Southeast Housing Homestyle Center, aka Grand Rapids Homestyle Center Residence, Grand Rapids MI. Unbuilt. Other participants included Alden Dow, Harwell Hamilton Harris, George Nelson, and Ralph Rapson.
In 1956 Detroit realtor Jason Honigman conceived a project called The Home Research Foundation to showcase new modernist houses on 80 acres outside Grand Rapids, MI. The press referred to it as "an outdoor museum for houses," "the world's most wondrous village," and, eventually, "the lost theme park." The project was extensively promoted in magazines such as Architectural Record, Arts and Architecture, and Interiors. The first set of 12 homes was to be designed and started in 1956, followed by 13 in 1957, and 25 more over a span of 3 years, ending in 1960. The Home Research Foundation closed its offices in May 1957 due to funding issues. The Homestyle Center was never built but the original lake around which the houses were to be built is now part of the 132-acre Fredrick Meijer Gardens and Sculpture Park which opened in 1995. 3D rendering by Tim Hills.
1956 - The Frank W. and Martha Applebee Residence, aka the Applebee-Shaw House, 316 Chewacla Drive, Auburn AL. Lamar Brown was supervising architect. Harold Swindell was the builder. Featured in Architectural Record Houses of 1956. Sold to William L. and Anne T. Shaw, who still owned it as of 2014. Color photos by M. Lewis Kennedy and Toby Savage.
1956 - The Barnet Yanofsky Residence, 43 Gate House Road, Chestnut Hill MA. Located near Newton. Sold by the original owner's children around 1998 to Molly Schaeffer and Jeffrey Wallen who did a restoration with architect Rick Ames. B/W photos by Joseph Molitor.
1956 - The Stinnett Residence, 3215 Glenna Lane, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1955. Sold to Diane J. Stinnett.
1956 - The Fletcher Residence, Venice FL. Unbuilt.
1957 - The Richard Guy (Dick) Martin Residence, 113 Ridgelawn Drive, Athens AL. Formerly numbered 18 Ridgelawn. Commissioned 1956. Central atrium with outer rings of rooms. Rudolph went to high school with his brother. Deeded to his wife upon divorce. Martin's son Joe later worked for Rudolph, working on Beekman Place and other projects. Sold around 1976 to Judy Johnson. Guest house added around 2004. Deeded in 2018 to heirs.
1958 - The Gilman House, location unknown. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list. Unbuilt.
1957 - The Theodore Burkhardt Residence, aka the Burkhardt-Cohen House, 1240 North Casey Key Road, Osprey FL. Commissioned 1956. A young Crutcher Ross watched it being built. Sold in 1981 to Ed and Betsy Cohen who remain owners as of 2015. Architect Toshiko Mori added the L-shaped guest house in 1998 and a pavilion-addition to the main house in 2003. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto; color photos (of the 1998 guest house) by Paul Warchol.
1958 - The Frederick A. (Fred) Deering House, 3013 Casey Key Road, Nokomis FL. Crutcher Ross was a draftsman on the project. Commissioned 1956. Featured in Architectural Record Houses of 1959. Featured in: Architectural Forum, May 1959; AIA Journal, June 1960; Arts + Architecture, June 1960; House and Garden, July 1960. Addition/renovation in 1961. Renovated and expanded again in the 2000s. Sold to Donald R. Wilborn. Photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1958 - The Mallory House, location unknown. Commissioned 1957. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list. Unbuilt.
1958 - The Martin R. and Lillian Pollock Harkavy Residence, 113 Morningside Drive, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1957. Featured in: House and Home, June 1959; and Arts+Architecture, June 1959. Lillian died in 1971 and Martin remarried. Renovated in 1996. Sold. Sold again in 2005 to Karen and Hugo Kitzis, who did a 2006 renovation and expansion designed by John Quinn. Sold in 2012 to Bob and Anne Essner. In the top photo, the original house is on the left; addition on the right. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1959 - The John P. and Alice Fullam (not Fulham) Residence, 372 Brownsburg Road, Newtown PA. 25 acres. Was off the radar for decades. Sold in 2007 to Linda Richardson. Sold in 2014 to Eric Jesse Wolff who expanded and restored it to the larger original Rudolph design in 2015 with architect Wolstenholme and Associates, built by WSCB Worthington and Shagen Custom Builders. Added in 2019 to the National Register of Historic Places. Photos by Chris Mottalini and Eric Wolff.
1959 - The Richard Ambler Liggett and Dorothy L. Liggett Residence, 12183 Fort King Highway, Thonotosassa FL. Amber Liggett and Rudolph were at Yale at the same time. Commissioned 1958. Featured in Architecture Record Houses of 1962. Mechanical Engineer, Charles T. Healy; structural Engineer, Sidney L. Barber; landscape design, Prentiss French; built by R. S. Stevens and Sons. Sold in 1988 to A. Bronson and Stella Thayer. B/W photos by Alexandre Georges.
1960 - The George and Violet McCandlish Renovation, 144 Upland Road, Cambridge MA. Commissioned 1958. Vappi, Symmes, and Mani were the mechanical engineers. Built by Stanley I. Phalen. Featured in Architectural Record Houses of 1960. Designed for two college teachers and their three children. Built in the center of a block of Victorian homes, the building was a community garage that was abandoned and fell into disrepair until the McCandlishes came along. Over 3,000 sf. Sold in 1966. Sold to George Waldstein. Sold in 2014 to Alexander Broich. Renovated by Ruhl Studio, which won a 2020 AIANY Design Award.
1960 - The Sidney Myer Friedberg and Miriam Arenson Friedberg Residence, Baltimore MD. Unbuilt, according to their daughter, Laura Rachel Burrows.
1960 - aka the Vacation House for Women's Day Magazine. Unsure if built.
1960 - The Robert Taylor and Kenneth Bataglia House, Water Island, Fire Island NY. Rudolph was a friend of the owners and according to the Ackermans, he gave the project to Yale students to detail. Sold in 1983 to Joel and Nina Ackerman, who added a separate smaller traditional beach house on the same lot. For sale in 2020. Photos by Kathleen O'Donnell.
1961 - The R. H. Daisley Residence, 54 Spanish River Drive, Ocean Ridge, Boynton Beach FL. Commissioned 1960. Sold in 2008 to Eugene Miller. B/W photos by Joseph Molitor.
1960 - The Pi Kappa Phi House, 11 West Fraternity Row, Gainesville FL. Dramatically altered over the years to have a colonial look, with the enclosure of most open spaces including the stairways. Destroyed in July 2017.
1961 - The Kappa Sigma Fraternity House, 104 Hemlock Drive, Auburn AL. Located at Auburn University. Has been closed for years.
1961 - The Norbert Leslie Silvas Residence, Greenwich CT. Featured in Architectural Record, November 1962. Never built, according to the Silvas family. Structural engineer, Herman D. J. Spiegel; mechanical engineer, John L. Alturi.
1961 - The Arthur W. and Teresa Milam Residence, 1033 Ponte Vedra Boulevard, Ponte Vedra Beach FL. Commissioned 1959. Structural engineer, Herman D. J. Spiegel, who served as Dean of Yale from 1971 to 1976. Mechanical engineer, Frank B. Wilder. Onsite supervision by Robert Ernest; built by William E. Arnold. A 1963 Architectural Record House. Rudolph added a guest house wing plus garage modifications. Deeded to Teresa Milam and heirs. For sale for the first time 2017-2021. Back decks were lost in the hurricanes of 2017. A seawall was built around 2019. Sold in 2021 to Jonathan and Sheila Davies. Black and white photos Joseph Molitor and Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1962 - Yale University Married Student Housing, aka the Mansfield Apartments, 304 Mansfield Street, New Haven CT. 49 units. Commissioned 1960. Color photo by Bruce Barnes; B/W photo by George Czerna.
1962 - The Peter Schub Residence, Long Island NY. Unsure if built, but likely not.
1962 - The Albert C. Bostwick, III Residence, Palm Beach FL. Unbuilt. Commissioned around 1954. Bottom rendering by Mark Palacios.
1965 - The John W. and Frances Garth Wallace House, 202 Ridgelawn Drive, Athens AL. Commissioned 1961. Engineer, John Altieri; HVAC, Herman Spiegel. Featured in: Architecture Record Houses 1965; and House and Garden, April 1966. Sold in 2015 to Beth Beasley who did a renovation. Color photos from LIFE Magazine Archive; B/W by Alexandre Georges.
1965 - The Callahan Residence, Birmingham AL. Unbuilt.
1965 - The Paul Rudolph Home and Office Renovation, 31 High Street, New Haven CT. Commissioned 1958. Rudolph purchased and dramatically remodeled the interior of an 1850s Victorian Italianate house for a studio and residence.
1965 - The Stanley Kinney Residence, Hamilton NY. Unbuilt.
1966 - The Alexander Hirsch and Lewis Turner Townhouse Renovation, aka Halston House, 101 East 63rd Street, New York NY. Includes a private garage and rooftop deck. 7349 square feet. Featured in Architectural Record Houses of 1970. Built by Blitman Corporation. Sold in 1974 to designer Roy Halston Frowick, aka Halston, who made the townhouse "party central" during the 1970s. In 1990, a few months before Halston died, he sold to Gunter Sachs and Gianni Agnelli. Eventually, Sachs bought out Agnelli's interest and died by suicide in 2011. Marin and Montanye LLP, Sachs' estate accounting firm, tried to sell it for 8 years. Sold in 2019 to Tom Ford.
1966 - The George Crawford Manor Housing for the Elderly, 90 Park Street, New Haven CT. Commissioned 1962.
1966 - The Joseph Caspi Penthouse Residence, New York NY. Unbuilt.
1967 - Fredella Village Public Housing, 1205 China Street, Vicksburg MS. Assembled from prefab sections in two weeks. Has been renovated.
1967 - The Frank and Anne H. Parcells Residence, 3 Cameron Place, Grosse Pointe MI. Sold in 2014 to Ann Stevenson and Curt Catallo.
1967 - The Robert Brown Townhouse Remodel, 251 West 13th Street, New York NY. Originally the 1888 Jackson Square Library. Not sure if the model, bottom photo, was carried through to construction. Sold in 1997 to Tom Fontana who undid most of the Rudolph features. Top photo by Tom Miller.
1967 - The Aly Kaiser Apartment Renovation, and the Mrs. Henry Kaiser Apartment Renovation, New York NY. Her husband, industrialist Henry J. Kaiser, died in August 1967.
1967 - Lewis S. Davidson Public Housing, New York City Housing Authority, 810 Home Street, Bronx NY.
1967 - The Rain Middletown Senior Center, 3033 Middletown Road, Bronx NY.
1967 - Tracey Towers Public Housing, 20 and 40 West Mosholu Parkway South, Bronx NY. Housed 500 residents per tower. Bottom photo by Kelvin Dickinson.
1967 - Married Student Housing for the University of Virginia, Charlottesville VA. Unbuilt.
1968 - The Beneficent House, Weybosset Hill Housing, 1 Chestnut Street, Providence RI. Commissioned 1963.
1968 - The Herbert Green Residence, 138 Stonewall Farm Drive, Honesdale PA. Sold in 1996 to Edward and Ewa Jakubek.
1970 - The Oriental Masonic Gardens Housing, Wilmot Road, New Haven CT. Commissioned 1968. Built by the Prince Hall order of Masons with a HUD mortgage for $3.5 million, the private Oriental Masonic Gardens consisted of 148 prefab units on 12.5 acres. Residences were grouped in fours with a lower module containing living spaces and a module above with bedrooms. They were expensive to build, they leaked, they were ugly, people hated them, and they were destroyed in 1981, a mere 11 years later. Last photo is from 1980. Paper written by William Brenner in 1971, who in 2016 wants you to know this was a youthful project.
1968 - Fort Lincoln Public Housing, Washington DC. Unbuilt.
1969 - The Harry Raich Residence, Quogue, NY. Unbuilt.
1969 - The Arne and Eleanor Livingston Briggs Lewis Residence, Chestnut Street, Boston MA. Unbuilt, according to Eleanor Briggs. They naively bought the land before checking with the review board, which soundly rejected anything modern. Project architect, Terry Mullin.
1969 - The Richard Chadwick Pistell Residence, Lyford Cay, Nassau, Bahamas. Unbuilt.
1969 - The Gardner and Jan Cowles Apartment Renovation, 84 Mercer Street, New York NY. At 9000+ sf, one of the largest single-floor apartments in New York at the time. For sale in 2012.
1970 - The Maurice Deane Residence, 35 Pheasant Run, Great Neck NY. Built by Anderson Brothers. Structural engineer, Paul Gugliotta. Featured in Architectural Record Houses of 1976; GA Houses 1. Sold to the Dabah family.
1970 - The John M. Shuey Residence, Bloomfield Hills MI. Unbuilt.
1970 - The Maurits and Claire Edersheim Apartment, 927 5th Avenue, New York NY. Still owned by the Edersheims as of 2007.
1970 - New York Public Housing, 725 units in New York NY. Unbuilt.
1970 - Kew Gardens, Queens NY. Ten apartment towers with 4,000 units of public housing. Unbuilt.
1971 - The Sid R. and Anne H. Bass Residence, 1801 Deepdale Drive, Fort Worth TX. Rudolph's biggest single-family project. Commissioned 1970. Deeded through divorce to Anne H. Bass. Was for sale in 2014; then withdrawn. Bottom three photos by Tony Monk.
1971 - The Lee and Dorothea Elman Apartment Renovation, 1 West 64th Street, New York NY. Commissioned around 1969. Furniture and decorative arts. Built.
1971 - The Bert Dweck Residence, 4 Parker Avenue, Deal NJ. Renovations by Rudolph in 1986. B/W photos by Donald Luckenbill.
1971 - The William and Karen Davidson Residence, 4475 Lahser Road, Bloomfield Hills MI. Unbuilt. The Davidsons later built the house above, designed by Young and Young.
1972 - The Louis Micheels Residence, 16 Minute Man Hill, Westport CT. Sold to David and Yvette Waldman. B/W photos by Donald Luckenbill. 5th and 6th photos by Chris Mottalini, taken just before the house was destroyed in early 2007, after a brief court fight between the owners and preservationists. Bottom photo of the demolition by Dave Matlow. According to the New York Times, negotiations to save the house failed even though there was a buyer: Steven Campus, then owner of Rudolph's Beekman Place in Manhattan.
1972 - Buffalo Waterfront Housing, aka Shoreline Apartments, 200 Niagara Street, Buffalo NY. Commissioned 1969. Top photo was his original plan, unbuilt. Second photo is what actually got funded and built. 142 units. Featured in Architectural Record, September 1972. In 2007, a renovation merged many smaller units to a new count of 87. In November 2013, the City Planning Board met to review plans submitted by Norstar Development that would demolish five buildings of the complex. Status unknown.
1972 - The John Pillsbury Residence, Cannes, France. Unbuilt.
1972 - The John B. Rogers Residence, Houston TX. Unbuilt. Rudolph designed an addition to their beach house in Palm Beach FL in 1983, also unbuilt.
1973 - The Erwin P. Staller Residence, 19 Count Rumford Lane, Lloyd Harbor NY. Deeded in 2019 to Pearl Staller.
1967 - The Paul Rudolph Apartment, 23 Beekman Place, New York NY. Commissioned 1967. He designed and built various renovations and additions over the next 30 years. Featured in GA Houses 5. Sold to Gabrielle and Michael Boyd. In 1990, attorney Leslie Friedman bought the 800sf 3rd floor apartment and in 1992 consulted with Rudolph for renovation advice. Sold in 2003 to Steven Campus. Renovated by Della Valle Bernheimer in 2004, adding air conditioning and a sprinkler system. Sold to Mark Fletcher. For rent as of 2013. Top left photo by Catherine Nance; bottom photo by Donald Luckenbill. Other photos by Richard Barnes.
1973 - Residence Hall for 200 students, Davidson College, Davidson NC. Unbuilt.
1973 - The Carol Housing Corporation Project, 3500 housing units in Miami FL. Unbuilt.
1973 - Modular Housing Exhibition. Unbuilt.
1974 - The Morgan Annex Housing, New York. Unbuilt.
1974 - The Niel C. Morgan Residence, Aspen CO. Unbuilt.
1974 - The Pan-Lon Engineering and Construction Company Apartment Hotel, Jerusalem, Israel. Unbuilt.
1974 - The Henry Van Os, Sr. Residence, Atlanta GA. Unbuilt. His son, Henry III, said in 2015 that he does not recall his parents commissioning Rudolph; although he his mother definitely was into Modernist design. His father was much more traditional and later built a very traditional house.
1974 - The Joanna T. Steichen Apartment Renovation, 455 East 51st Street, New York NY. Commissioned 1973. Peter Mullen was the project architect. Featured in GA Houses 5. Steichen bought it in 1973 and the renovation included multilevel interior galleries, a flying staircase, and an exterior balcony on the river side. In the autumn of 1974, featured in the New York Times and in Vogue, where it was called a "house in an apartment." Sold in 1985.
1974 - The Lee and Dorothea Elman Renovation, aka Aston Magna, Great Barrington MA. Built. Status and address unknown. Dorothea created furniture out of tractor tires, above photo.
1975 - The Gary Strutin Apartment, 115 Cedar Street, New Rochelle NY. 2200 sf on the top floor of his plastics business. The exterior was painted pink and purple to be visible from nearby I-95. He moved to another location in 1999.
1975 - The Howard Blum Apartment Renovation, New York NY. Unbuilt. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
1976 - The Nancy E. Houston Residence, 46 Knowles Avenue, Westerly RI. She bought the land with her father, Livingston Houston, in 1975. Commissioned 1975. Sold in 1992 to Barbara Ellinghaus. Available for rent each July.
1978 - The Robert and Joan Bernhard Addition, 21 Hycliff Road, Greenwich CT. Commissioned 1976. Project architect, Peter Mullen. Featured in GA Houses 6; and House Beautiful January 1980. Rudolph designed the light fixture, below right.
1978 - The Mikhail Baryshnikov House and Studio, Sherman CT. Unbuilt. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
1977 - The Ronald D. Fein Addition, Sands Point NY. Unbuilt.
1978 - The Vallo M. Benjamin Residence, 322 East 57th, Unit 4/5B, New York NY. Featured in the New York Times, 5/24/1984. Benjamin still owner as of 2013.
1978 - The Martin R. and Renate B. Harkavy House, 2512 Riverview Drive, Sarasota FL. Not a Paul Rudolph design. However, Renate Harkavy took the basic form of their previous Rudolph house and adapted it. The Harkavys were still owners as of 2015.
1978 - The Richard Young Residence, Livingston Manor NY. Unbuilt.
1978 - The Rafael Carrillo Residence, New York NY. Unclear if built.
1978 - Apartment, New York NY. Two levels, similar to the Vallo Benjamin but with different layout. Project architect, David Graham. Client unknown. Featured in GA Houses 6.
1978 - The Dani and Irene Siegel Remodel, 351 Dune Road, Westhampton Beach NY.
1978 - The Robert Hedaya House, Deal NJ. Status and address unknown. Possibly 48 Monmouth, needs verification.
1979 - The Hong Fok Investment Holdings Private Ltd. Apartments, Orchard Road, Singapore. 74 units. Unbuilt.
1978 - The Donald and Cynthia Zucker Remodel, 42 West 11th Street, New York NY. 1993 renovation with Rudolph. Interiors by Cecil Hayes. Deeded to Cynthia Zucker. Sold in 2012 to 42W11 LLC, a lobbying firm.
Around 1979 - The Poon House, Millstone Road/Tito Lane, Wilton CT. Unbuilt, consultation only. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
1980 - Ten Bungalows for the Hong Fok Investment Holding Company, Hong Kong. Unbuilt.
1980 - The Henry Kwee Residence, Singapore. Unbuilt.
1980 - The Hugh and Ruth Downs Residence, somewhere in CT. According to daughter Dee Dee Downs and son H. R. Downs, it was never built. Rudolph's partner Ernst Wagner recalls there was a lawsuit at some point, needs verification.
1981 - The Kenneth N. and Emily Sherman Renovation and Addition, 135 Heather Lane, Wilton CT.
1982 - aka the Beverly Park Estates House, Beverly Hills CA. Unbuilt. Original development was to be 189 houses, taken down to 80 (due to opposition from surrounding neighborhoods and Teamsters).
1982 - The Mark Edersheim Additions, 862 Fenimore Road, Larchmont NY. Rudolph also designed additions to this 1958 house in 1989 and 1991. Second photo is of guest house. Photos by Elizabeth Dooley. Deeded to Claire Edersheim. Deeded in 2010 to Elizabeth and Steven Edersheim. Sold in 2010 to Joseph Ramya and Joseph Viju. Renovated in 2020 by Michael Grogan. For sale in 2020.
1983 - The Michael Floersheim / Strauss Residence, New York NY. Built; status unknown. Do you know where it is?
1983 - The John B. Rogers Addition, Palm Beach, FL. Unbuilt.
1983 - The Hillel and Marsha Tobias Remodel, 31 Tuthill Lane, Remsenburg-Speonk NY. Sold to Marvin Natiss and Wendy Tobias. Sold in 2005 to Herbert Tobias. Sold in 2010 to James and Donna Krass. Photo above is house on site as of 2018.
1984 - The Eisner Residence Remodel, Westport CT. Unbuilt.
1984 - The Michael and Joan Lenihan Glazer Residence, 4686 West 6th Street, Los Angeles CA. 17000 sf. Commissioned 1979. Sold in 1992 to Lonnie C. Blanchard. Sold in 2000 to Michele M. Goffin. Rents for $32,000/month as of 2015.
1984 - The George F. and Mary Pavarini Residence, aka Clifton-On-The-Sound, 183 Byram Shore Road, Greenwich CT. Sold in 2012 to Kadymama LLC. Destroyed.
1985 - The Marvin and Sybil B. Licht Renovation, 211 Everit Avenue, Hewlett NY. Sold to new owners who undid much of Rudolph's work.
1985 - The Cheng Wai Keung Residence, 48 Nassim Road, Singapore. His brother is Edmund Cheng, see below.
1985 - The Fisher Island Hotel and Condominiums, Miami FL. Unbuilt.
1986 - The Wylie Tuttle Residence, 6360 Swan Creek Road, Rock Hall MD. For sale in 2020 for the first time.
1986 - The C. Gordon Murphy Residence, Greenwich CT. Unbuilt.
1986 - The Donald and Cecile Engel Renovation and Addition, 20 Pleasant Ridge Road, Harrison NY. Rudolph added a pavilion in 1994. 7370 sf. Deeded to Cecile Engel. Has been a rental. The interior is an unusual mix of traditional and modern.
1986 - The Richard C. Treistman Renovation and Addition, 550 Illingworth Avenue, Englewood NJ. Sold in 2018 to Ed and Betty Jan Turen.
1986 - 19 Greentree Lane, Chester NY. Not a Rudolph design. Features a helipad. Sold to Susan Jessup. Sold in 1995 to Tina B. Carver and Eugene Podhurst. Sold in 1999 to David H. and Melan Vitali. Remodeled and expanded in 2001.
For sale 2014-2020, advertised as a Paul Rudolph design, based on a claim by the owner. We found no evidence to support that claim whatsoever, and the owner declined to produce any.
1987 - The Colonnade Condos for Pontiac Land Private Ltd., Singapore. Commissioned 1980. Interior photos by Peter Aaron/ESTO. Consists of 90 condominium units on "28 stories" because the entire structure is on pillars and does not begin on ground level. There are 27 simplex (one level) 3 bedroom units at 3600sf, 30 duplex level three bedroom units at 3900sf, 29 duplex level two bedroom units with study at 2800 sf, four penthouses on the top of the building, three being around 7000sf, and one super penthouse of 3 stories close to 12,600 sf that hovers over a roof garden that includes a private pool. All the above configurations include a maids room typical for Singapore but does not count as a bedroom.
1989 - The Maurits (Mark) and Claire Edersheim Renovations, 862 Fenimore Road, Larchmont NY. Original house built around 1956. Renovated several times by Rudolph up to a total of 6500 sf. Sold in 2010 to Joseph Viju.
1989 - The Institution Hill Condos, Singapore. Unbuilt.
1989 - The Paul Rudolph and Ernst Wagner Townhouse, aka the Modulightor Building, 246 East 58th Street, New York NY. Home of the Paul Rudolph Heritage Foundation. Still owned by Ernst Wagner as of 2019.
1990 - The Wee Ee Chao Residence, 9A Chatsworth Road, Singapore. Thought to be unbuilt for decades, it indeed was built. The large screens have been removed. Rented to the Government of Ireland as an Ambassador's residence as of 2011.
1990 - The Pease House Addition, 50 Coniston Road, Short Hills NJ. Unbuilt. Listed in his files as located in Jakarta, Indonesia; this is the city Rudolph used to code original US owners who wanted their project hidden from the public.
1990 - The Gatot Subroto Building. Unbuilt commercial office building.
1991 - The Manny Fox and Cynthia Firestone Residence, aka Fox-Firestone, Sherman CT. Unbuilt.
1991 - The Spyro Contogouris House, New York. Unbuilt. Source: Timothy Rohan, The Architecture of Paul Rudolph.
1993 - The Donald and Cynthia Zucker House, Easthampton, Long Island NY. Unbuilt.
1993 - 32nd Street Southeast Company Apartments, aka The Future, 200 East 32nd Street, New York. Commissioned 1989. Designed with Costas Kondylis. Developed by Donald Zucker, 165 condominium apartments.
1994 - The Jonathan Formanek Renovation, 3911 Homewood Cove, Memphis TN. Unbuilt. Never got beyond the agreement stage.
1994 - The Ernst Wagner Residence, Switzerland. Unbuilt. Wagner was Rudolph's personal partner for the last 20 years of his life and created the Paul Rudolph Foundation and the Paul Rudolph Heritage Foundation.
1994 - The Wee Ee Chao Triplex, 57 Plantation Road, Hong Kong. Unbuilt.
1994 - The Concourse, Beach Road, Singapore. Designed with Architects 61. Included nine stories of apartments.
1995 - The Wee Ee Chao Project, 100 Emerald Hill Road, Singapore. Chao contracted Rudolph for $45,000 to design the interior in a building where the exterior is protected by a conservation easement. Still owned by the Chaos in 2020.
1995 - The Edmond Cheng Residence 2, 16 Peel Road, Singapore.
1995 - The Gloria Lee House, Ford Avenue at Leedon Road, Singapore. Unbuilt.
1997 - The David Eu Residence, 7 Camden Park, Singapore. Commissioned 1994. Long thought unbuilt, it was discovered in 2019 by researcher Eric Wolff.
1998 - The Jim Willenborg House, aka the Obokoji House, 1766 Alabama Street, San Francisco CA. Commissioned 1993. For rent in 2013.
Year unknown - The Bideford House, location unknown. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
Year unknown - The Denzler Apartment, location unknown. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
Year unknown - The McClosky Addition, location unknown. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
Year unknown - The Lily Simons House, location unknown. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
Year unknown - The Poole House, location unknown. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
Year unknown - The Ir Rooseno House, Jalan Kebon Kacang 1, lot 24, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Year unknown - The Kendrick House, location unknown. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
Year unknown - The Johnson House, location unknown. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
Year unknown - The Gellert House, location unknown. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
Year unknown - The Fownes House, location unknown. Source: Library of Congress Rudolph project list.
Sources include: Rudolph Archive at UMass; Paul Rudolph Foundation Blog; Paul Rudolph Foundation; Charles Cerrito; Paul Rudolph: Architecture and Urbanism, 1946-1974 (in Chinese); Crutcher Ross; The Sarasota School of Architecture, 1941-1966 by John Howey; Goshen Chronicle; Frederick Gibson; Paul Rudolph: The Florida Houses by Domin and King; The Architecture of Paul Rudolph by Timothy Rohan.